Newport Beach, California
By Dr. Norris Frederick
Since I wrote my post in early May, “Philosophy for the Pandemic: Stoicism”, the epidemiologists’ warnings about what could happen when stay-at-home restrictions were relaxed have come true: the rate of infections, number of cases, and number of hospitalizations have skyrocketed in the U.S., particularly in states in the Southern part of the country. Deaths now follow several weeks behind infections and hospitalizations, so deaths very well could be spiking soon.
There’s a great deal of anxiety among many groups of people. Not only those over 60 and/or those who have complicating illnesses — who are most likely to become seriously ill and die — but also among an already anxious group of university students, parents of K-12 students, and many people who are out of work or who fear the loss of their jobs, businesses, and homes. Add to this the disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on Hispanics and African-Americans, and the murder of George Floyd and nationwide protests for Black Lives Matters, and we are living in extraordinarily turbulent times. There is a fear specifically of this virus, which also has triggered a generalized anxiety about survival, death and the meaningfulness of our lives.
Fear, anxiety and restrictions on what one may do has in turn led to recurring anger. One group assembles without masks, some people carrying large rifles, to protest what they say are violations of their freedoms in the bill of rights. “No governor can force me to wear a mask! People have the right to choose.”
A second group is very angry at the first and those who continue to endanger others by not wearing masks in places such as grocery stores. “They are so selfish! And so stupid!”
Yet another group may be ignoring CDC advice about preventing the virus because they “just want to have fun.” Despite warnings from the California governor that “the virus does not take the weekend off,” beach-goers pack an Orange County beach in the photo above. That type of behavior has sparked a rapid increase in the pandemic in the U.S. The chart below shows the startling difference between the U.S. and other developed-nation democracies.
Chart by The New York Times July 28, 2020 | Source: Johns Hopkins University
According to Johns Hopkins University, in the U.S. the positive rate for infections bottomed out in early June at about 4.4% of those tested. Since then it has steadily increased until now when it is 8.5%, and it’s much higher in some places: Arizona is 23.6%, Florida is 18.7%.
A large part of the difference between the U.S. and Europe is explained by our lack of effective leadership at both the national and state levels. In Georgia, where infection rates are about 15%, the governor is spending his energy telling the mayors they don’t have the power to order their cities’ citizens to wear masks. But leadership is not the only factor, as no matter what the governor of California and the regulations say, people often ignore social distancing at the beaches.
There is good reason for the fear and anxiety, and one can understand the anger.
Desire, Freedom, and Stoicism
Where’s the hope in this? It centers on the Stoic idea about what’s up to us and what’s not up to us. What’s up to us are our judgment, will, effort, and desires. As Julie Swann, a NC state professor and former CDC researcher says, “Everything for the future will depend on what people do.” If enough people will wear masks, wash their hands frequently, and observe social distance, the infection rate will proceed slowly enough that hospitals will not be overrun with sick patients, and we get closer to a time with better treatments and a vaccination. But with only 10% of the U.S. having been infected so far, the coronavirus is here with us for many more months. We can’t control the outcome, but we can control what we do.
Just as all those folks at beaches, bars and even large family gatherings are driven by the desire for sun and fun and social connection, many elected officials are driven by desire, in their desire to cater to the desires of their supporters in order to get re-elected. The Stoic would point out that the desires get reinforced by irrational beliefs (“I MUST get out on the beach, now,” “I MUST please others and maintain power”).
However, as the Stoic philosopher, military general and emperor Marcus Aurelius writes in The Meditations, “the jerks on the leading strings of desire are also felt by wild beasts.” Surely, he says, we are different from wild animals as we can be led by our reason. The book is better titled To Himself, as it is a journal in which he examines himself as he works to practice the Stoic life. As a military and political leader, he sought not to enrich himself and his family, but to serve reason and the good of the whole. Our desires are up to us, but far too often – reinforced by culture — we think and act as if we have no control over our desires.
Advertising and social media influencers tell us that freedom is acting on our desires: “Just Do It!” “Quench that Thirst!” “Buy This, Be Popular, and Have Fun!” Contrary to the view that freedom means acting on my desires, the Stoic maintains that freedom is the ability to use our reason, to rise above unhealthy desires, even when they are strongest.
When we think about freedom and the question of “Am I free?”, it’s helpful to go within the question and ask, “What is the ‘I’”? The Stoic answer is that “I” am my rational mind, my soul, not my desires nor my body.
To help us become more free, the Stoics offer various spiritual exercises as “therapy of the soul.” One practice is to keep a daily journal where you examine your actions and thoughts, as did Aurelius, and note when you are living according to reason, and when you fail to do so. Another exercise, and one of the most powerful, is “the view from above.”
The View from Above
“Nighttime panorama looking north across Pakistan’s Indus River valley….The winding border between Pakistan and India is lit by security lights that have a distinct orange tone.” – NASA 
Imagine that you have the power to ascend high into the sky to look down on earth. From that view so many human activities appear ridiculous and irrational. From that distance your desires, your “musts,” and your pride — in your reasonably good looks for your age, your possessions, the praising comments from others, and all your charming personality traits –seem totally insignificant. Even your anxiety and anger in these pandemic times seem a lot less significant. If building borders between countries and waging war over them, vividly illustrated by the NASA photo above, is irrational, what about the anger you harbor toward your fellow citizens?
You are probably saying, “Now THIS is cheerful, just what I needed in the midst of the pandemic, to be told I am insignificant! Thanks a lot!” But there is a freedom and even a power that comes from this spiritual exercise. It helps you see that this desire you have right now (“I MUST be liked,” “I MUST socialize with my friends”) is in the larger scheme of things just not that important. The view from above helps distance you and detach you from your current desires, and thus helps to free you from those desires, to put them into the larger picture. This spiritual exercise helps you to realize your judgments are in your control.
If you practice the view from above, keep a journal, and perhaps do other spiritual exercises regularly, you may find that your original belief, “I can’t control how I feel,” turns out to be false. In fact, as you realize you can learn to choose your reaction to both harmful and helpful feelings, you experience a centered-ness and calmness. You move more toward the Stoic ideal of being a person who lives with equanimity, in accord with nature, and does his or her best to do the duties to be good and helpful world-citizens. This calmness both leads to and is a product of good judgments.
For the Stoic, this calm does not rule out all feelings — some feelings in accord with nature and reason are healthy, such as love for family, friends, and even all mankind. The Stoic is mindful of the larger whole. Meaningfulness is found in being a part of something larger than yourself.
There is a power in knowing that you and your feelings and desires are not at the center of the universe. Imagining you have the power to ascend high into the sky corresponds to your actual power of reason, if you will develop it. You can experience this power and this calm as you practice this spiritual exercise. As Hadot writes, the “I” experiences both “its puniness, as it sees its … individuality lost in the infinity of space and time,” and also “its greatness, as it experiences its power to embrace the totality of things.”
Embracing the totality of things means embracing others, who seen from a distance are at least partly the results of chains of causes – parents, heredity, wealth, education, environment – as each of us is also at least partly the result of such causal chains. As we come to understand this, we come to feel, says Aurelius, “no resentment against anyone,” and indeed to love humankind. When we see a person who does not wear a mask in these coronavirus times, we may follow Aurelius’ advice on how to instruct the other person, “not chiding him and making him feel that we are putting up with him, but with frankness and goodness,…with gentleness, without irony, not reproachfully but with affection, with a heart exempt from bitterness – … nor in order to be admired by some bystander, but truly person to person.”
Seen from the distance provided by the view from above or perhaps from the view of a lifetime or even all of human history, the Stoic helps us see that this pandemic, our anxiety, and our anger, are part of a much larger picture, so very much of which is beyond our control. However, our judgment, will, effort, and desires are in our control.
Few of us will achieve the lofty, almost godlike, equanimity of which Aurelius writes, but maybe, just maybe, we can do a little better with our anxiety, our anger, our fears and our desires, and we can help heal the deep divisions with others and play our part in helping end this
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 As of July 20, 2020.
 Charlotte Observer, July 21, 2020.
 Aurelius, The Meditations, translated by G.M.A. Grube, book III, section 16, (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1983).
 Pierre Hadot, What is Ancient Philosophy? translated by Michael Chase, 217, (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002).
 Hadot, 205.
 Aurelius, III. 16
 Aurelius, XI, 13, and XI, 18, as quoted by Hadot, 219.